一、基本规律 (Basic rules)
1.Indefinite article (不定冠词)
我们用"a , an"当我们不知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个：
* is one of many. ( 是许多个中的一个)
He is an artist.(=there are many artists)
* is not unique. (不是唯一的)
I have just bought a book
* has not been mentioned before. (之前没有提到过)
There was a new student in class today.
2.Definite article (定冠词)
* is unique (or unique in that context) (是唯一的)
The Australian Prime Minister. (=there is only one)
I looked inside, the engine was in a terrible state. (=there is only one engine, in this case)
* has been mentioned before. (之前提到过)
The man gave me a ticket. I looked at it, and saw that the ticket was a single.
* is defined by the phrase which follows it. (要被接下来的短语详细说明)
What is the new student's name?
3. No articles (无冠词)
* using plural or uncountable nouns (在使用复数或不可数名词时)
Do you like sport?
* with the names of people or places, but there are many exceptions (人名和地名的时候不用冠词，但是地名有许多例外，下文一一介绍)
He is Professor Jones
4. Fixed phrases ( 固定短语)
a few/at home/at work/at the beginning/at the end/go to bed/go to the cinemas,shops,station/in the world/once a week/sixty kilometres an hour/the next/the other the other day/the same
二、 经常发生问题的区域 (Areas that often cause problems)
1.Jobs (工作)如果有许多人做这个工作我们用 a 或 an
My husband is an architect. (=there are many architects)
He is having talks with the French foreign minister(外交部长). (=there is only one)
She is the best person for the job.
3.Last and next
有一些形容词如 “last” 和 “next ”同时可以用也可以不用定冠词“the”但是句意会发生变化
I saw James last night. (=the one before this one)
It is the last night of our holiday. (=the fanal one)
I will see you next week.(=the one after this one)
4. Institutions: school, prison, university, church, home, hospital和以上机构连用时我们不用定冠词“the”
My sister had to stay in hospital overnight.
Our flat is opposite the hospital.
三 在表示时间和地点的短语中用或不用定冠词 (phrases of time and place)
1.Phrases of time 有些时间短语必须用“the”
Dates: the 25th of December / December the 25th
Parts of the day: in the afternoon, in the evening, in the morning ( but at night, at lunchtime)
Decades or Centuries: the 1980s, the 21st century
Years or Seasons: in 2002, in summer
Months or Days: in August, on Friday, see you tomorrow
国家，大洲，岛屿，洲，省，城市前不加“the”(countries, continents, islands, states, provinces, town, cities)in Asia, to Sydney from Texas in Turkey in Britain in America
例外情况：the Netherlands, the UK, the USA, the Arab World (可以发现国家名作为缩写的话要加“the”)
如果我们指的是一个地区(region)那么我们不需要用“the”:North-west Inida, Northern Europe.
但是如果我们指的是对于一个地区的方位或方向就要加上“the”:in the east of the country, in the south of Italy, on the coast
大多数路，街，公园，桥梁，商店，酒店不用加“the”(raods, streets, parks, bridges, shops, restaurants):Central Park, Oxford Street, Tower Bridge
但是有命名的剧院，电影院，旅馆，画廊，博物馆加“the”(names of theatres, cinemas, hotels, galleries, museums):the Hermitage, the National Theatre, the Odeon, the Ritz 特别的山和湖不加“the”
Lake Victoria, Mount Everest山脉，河流，海洋，运河要加“the”:the Atlantic, the Yangtze River, the Himalayas, the Panama Canal